Thursday, 15 December 2016

Java History : Who, When and How the Java Programming is Developed

Java is a simple, object oriented, distributed, interpreted, robust, secure, architecture neutral, portable, high-performance, multithreaded, and dynamic language. Today Java is not only used as Internet Language, but is also invisible force behind many of the applications and devices that we use in our day-to-day lives, From mobile phones to handheld devices, games and navigation systems to e-business solution, Java can be found everywhere! It has really wide range of applications, much wider than that of C and C++. 

In 1990, James Gosling and Patrick Naughton of Sun Microsystems, decided to create a pure object oriented development environment that would be based on C++, but much easier to learn and use than C++. Initially they named their project "Green Project" and their team was called "Green team". Other major contributors to the development of Java language were Mike Sheridan, Chris Warth and Ed Frank. Also Bill Joy, Arthur van Hoff, Jonathan Payne, Frank Yellin, and Tim Lindholm were the key players. The team led by James Gosling worked and created the programming language that revolutionized our world -Java! Firstly, it was called "Green talk" by James Gosling and file extension was .gt., After that, it was called Oak and was developed as a part of the Green project. The original name of JAVA is OAK, Which is a tree name. In the year 1995, OAK was revised and developed software called JAVA. Oak was renamed as "Java" because it was already a trademark by Oak Technologies. Java is an island of Indonesia where first coffee was produced. 
The Green team demonstrated their new language with an interactive, handheld home entertainment controller that was originally targeted at digital cable television industry, For the green team members, it was an advance concept at that time. But, it was suited for internet programming which was just starting to take off. When Java was developed, nobody thought of it for a platform like Internet, Instead, the primary motivation was the need for a platform independent language that could be used to create software to be embedded in various consumer electronic devices, such as microwave ovens and remote controls. Later, Java technology as incorporated by Netscape. 
Java is more than just another programming language. It is both a language and a platform for developing applications to run on the Internet or in corporate intranet environments. Java is a Simple and yet Powerful object oriented programming language, well suited to designing various kinds of applications including the special web applications i.e. the applications that run on internet, called applets.

Friday, 10 January 2014

Cybercrime i.e. The crime done through Computers and Internet. Cybercrime is any criminal activity involving computers and networks.Cybercrime is one of the fastest growing areas of crime. More and more criminals are exploiting the speed, convenience and anonymity that modern technologies offer in order to commit a diverse range of criminal activities. These include attacks against computer data and systems, identity theft, the distribution of child sexual abuse images, internet auction fraud, the penetration of online financial services, as well as the deployment of viruses, and various email scams such as phishing.

The global nature of the Internet has allowed criminals to commit almost any illegal activity anywhere in the world, making it essential for all countries to adapt their domestic offline controls to cover crimes carried out in cyberspace. The use of the Internet by terrorists, poses a serious threat to national and international security.

Cyber crime cases in the country registered under the IT Act last year rose by about 61 percent to 2,876 with Maharashtra recording the most number of cases, Parliament was informed recently.

The country had witnessed 1,791 cases registered under the Information Technology (IT) Act in 2011, Minister of State for Communication and IT Milind Deora said in a written reply to Rajya Sabha.

"As per the cyber crime data maintained by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), a total of 288, 420, 966, 1,791 and 2,876 cyber crime cases were registered under IT Act during 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively".

Maharashtra registered a total of 471 cases in 2012 followed by Andhra Pradesh (429), Karnataka (412), Kerala (269) and Uttar Pradesh (205) under the IT Act.

Types of Cybercrime:--
1 ) Assault by Threat – threatening a person with fear for their lives or the lives of their families or persons whose safety they are responsible for (such as employees or communities) through the use of a computer network such as email, videos, or phones.

2 ) Child pornography – the use of computer networks to create, distribute, or access materials that sexually exploit underage children.

3 ) Cyber contraband – transferring illegal items through the internet (such as encryption technology) that is banned in some locations.

4 ) Cyberlaundering – electronic transfer of illegally-obtained monies with the goal of hiding its source and possibly its destination.

5 ) Cyberstalking – express or implied physical threats that creates fear through the use of computer technology such as email, phones, text messages, webcams, websites or videos.

6 ) Cyberterrorism – premeditated, usually politically-motivated violence committed against civilians through the use of, or with the help of, computer technology.

Cybertheft is using a computer to steal. This includes activities related to: breaking and entering, DNS cache poisoning, embezzlement and unlawful appropriation, espionage, identity theft, fraud, malicious hacking, plagiarism, and piracy.

7 ) Cybertresspass – accessing a computer’s or network’s resources without authorization or permission from the owner, but does not alter, disturb, misuse, or damage the data or system. This is hacking for the purpose of entering an electronic network without permission. Examples might include:

Using a wireless internet connection at a hotel at which you are staying and accessing the hotel’s private files without disturbing them because they are available.

Reading email, files, or notice which programs are installed on a third-party's computer system without permission just for fun, because you can. This is sometimes simply called snooping.

8 ) Cybervandalism - Damaging or destroying data rather than stealing or misusing them (as with cybertheft) is called cybervandalism. This can include a situation where network services are disrupted or stopped. This deprives the computer/network owners and authorized users (website visitors, employees) of the network itself and the data or information contained on the network. Examples:

Entering a network without permission and altering, destroying, or deleting data or files.

Deliberately entering malicious code (viruses, rootkits, trojans) into a computer network to monitor, follow, disrupt, stop, or perform any other action without the permission of the owner of the network.

Attacking the server of the computer network (DDoS attack) so the server does not perform properly or prevents legitimate website visitors from accessing the network resources with the proper permissions.

Cyber Crime Prevention Tips:--
1 )Use Strong Passwords

Use different user ID / password combinations for different accounts and avoid writing them down. Make the passwords more complicated by combining letters, numbers, special characters (minimum 10 characters in total) and change them on a regular basis.

2 )Secure your computer
       a )Activate your firewall
           Firewalls are the first line of cyber defense; they block connections to unknown or bogus sites and will keep out some types of viruses and hackers.
       b )Use anti-virus/malware software
           Prevent viruses from infecting your computer by installing and regularly updating anti-virus software.
         c )Block spyware attacks
           Prevent spyware from infiltrating your computer by installing and updating antispyware software.
3 )Be Social-Media Savvy

Make sure your social networking profiles (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, MSN, etc.) are set to private. Check your security settings. Be careful what information you post online. Once it is on the Internet, it is there forever!

4 )Secure your Mobile Devices

Be aware that your mobile device is vulnerable to viruses and hackers. Download applications from trusted sources.

5 )Install the latest operating system updates

Keep your applications and operating system (e.g. Windows, Mac, Linux) current with the latest system updates. Turn on automatic updates to prevent potential attacks on older software.

6 )Protect your Data

Use encryption for your most sensitive files such as tax returns or financial records, make regular back-ups of all your important data, and store it in another location.
7 )Secure your wireless network

Wi-Fi (wireless) networks at home are vulnerable to intrusion if they are not properly secured. Review and modify default settings. Public Wi-Fi, a.k.a. “Hot Spots”, are also vulnerable. Avoid conducting financial or corporate transactions on these networks.

8 )Protect your e-identity

Be cautious when giving out personal information such as your name, address, phone number or financial information on the Internet. Make sure that websites are secure (e.g. when making online purchases) or that you’ve enabled privacy settings (e.g. when accessing/using social networking sites).

9 )Avoid being scammed

Always think before you click on a link or file of unknown origin. Don’t feel pressured by any emails. Check the source of the message. When in doubt, verify the source. Never reply to emails that ask you to verify your information or confirm your user ID or password.

10 ) Call the right person for help
Don’t panic! If you are a victim, if you encounter illegal Internet content (e.g. child exploitation) or if you suspect a computer crime, identity theft or a commercial scam, report this to your local police. If you need help with maintenance or software installation on your computer, consult with your service provider or a certified computer technician.

Thursday, 9 January 2014

Information Storage in QR codes--A New Era

What is QR Codes?

QR Code (Quick Response Code) is also known as two Dimensional Matrix Code first design for automotive industry in Japan. The BAR code is used to store the information of an item. The QR code can store information in the shape of character, numeric and binary data or any type of data. The QR code is become popular outside the automotive industry due to need of fast readability and great storage capacity as compared to old code. A QR code consists of black module arranged in square grid on white background which can be read by an image device or smart phones. Data in QR code may be in horizontal and vertical manner in it.

How do you generate a code?

You can easily generate a QR code using a site like or you can use the Open Source code to generate codes for you if you have a smart developer on hand. Google also has a tool to generate the QR code.

How could you use a QR code?

Your business, no matter how small or large, could use QR codes in a number of ways. You might auto generate one next to every product on your web site containing all the product details, the number to call and the URL link to the page so they can show their friends on their cell phone. You could add one to your business card containing your contact details so its easy for someone to add you to their contacts on their cell phone.
Add them to any print advertising, flyers, posters, invites, TV ads etc containing:
  • Product details
  • Contact details
  • Offer details
  • Event details
  • Competition details
  • A coupon
  • Twitter, Facebook, MySpace IDs
  • A link to your YouTube video